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Showing items 1 through 9 of 1170.
  1. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    November, 2018
    South Africa, Nigeria

    The interface between environment and conflict has gained traction in policy and security circles in recent times. Growing scholarly interest on the linkage stems from increasing awareness on the role climate change plays in precipitating resource contestations and conflict over depleting natural resources, particularly in poor regions. Such impacts sometimes result from secondary consequences of environmental decline and resources scarcity which give rise to stiff competitions over access to available resources.

  2. Library Resource
    Reports & Research
    October, 2016
    Burkina Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast

    This chapter is a case study that tests hypotheses in order to determine if political factors can reduce violence in cases of climate-change-induced or -aggravated agro-pastoral conflicts over natural resources. Three West African countries were selected because of their common socio-economic and environmental characteristics and because they host comparable farmer–herder conflicts: Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. The level of farmer–herder conflicts is estimated to have risen between 1960 and 2000 in the three countries.

  3. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    December, 2018
    Vietnam

    We estimate whether a land reform program led to higher incomes for ethnic minority households. In 2002, in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, Program 132 directed the transfer of farm land to ethnic minority households that had less than one hectare of land. Using the 2002 Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey as a baseline, in 2008 we resurveyed over one-thousand households to provide a retrospective evaluation of the impact of their participation in Program 132.

  4. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    April, 2016
    Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Central Asia

    Land degradation is a major challenge for agricultural and rural development
    in Uzbekistan. Our research findings indicate that the costs of land
    degradation in Uzbekistan are substantial; reaching about 0.85 billion USD annually
    resulting from the loss of valuable land ecosystem services due to land use and
    land cover changes alone between 2001 and 2009. On the other hand, economic
    simulations also show that the returns from actions to address land degradation can
    be four times higher their costs over a 30-year planning horizon, i.e. every dollar

  5. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    April, 2017
    China, Eastern Asia

    Context: Recent conceptual developments in ecosystem services research have revealed the need to elucidate the complex and unintended relationships between humans and the environment if we are to better understand and manage ecosystem services in practice.

    Objectives: This study aimed to develop a model that spatially represents a complex human–environment (H–E) system consisting of heterogeneous social–ecological components and feedback mechanisms at multiple scales, in order to assess multi-dimensional (spatial, temporal, and social) trade-offs in ecosystem services.

  6. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    August, 2016
    Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Central Asia

    Land degradation affects negatively the livelihoods and food security of
    global population. There have been recurring efforts by the international community
    to identify the global extent and severity of land degradation. Using the long-term
    trend of biomass productivity as a proxy of land degradation at global scale, we
    identify the degradation hotspots in the world across major land cover types. We
    correct factors confounding the relationship between the remotely sensed vegetation

  7. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    December, 2016
    Global

    The Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) initiative seeks to develop a
    science basis for policy actions to address land degradation. The purpose of this
    chapter is to provide with a conceptual framework and sound and feasible
    methodological standards for ELD assessments at global and national levels. Only
    if some basic standards are identified and adhered to, comparative assessments can
    be conducted between countries and useful aggregation of findings, based on these
    case studies, can be achieved. Therefore, using the Total Economic Value

  8. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    October, 2015
    Global

    The Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) initiative seeks to develop a science basis for policy actions to address land degradation. The purpose of this chapter is to provide with a conceptual framework and sound and feasible methodological standards for ELD assessments at global and national levels. Only if some basic standards are identified and adhered to, comparative assessments can be conducted between countries and useful aggregation of findings, based on these case studies, can be achieved.

  9. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    December, 2011
    Kenya

    Kenya’s land surface is primarily arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) which account for 84% of the total land area. The Desert Margins Programme (DMP) in Kenya has made some contribution to understanding which technology options have potential in reducing land degradation in marginal areas and conserving biodiversity through demonstrations, testing of the most promising natural resource management options, developing sustainable alternative livelihoods and policy guidelines, and replicating successful models.

  10. Library Resource
    Journal Articles & Books
    August, 2017
    Southern Asia, India

    The stated objective of land policy in India has shifted from redistribution through land reform to ownership through land acquisition in the period between 1950 and 2014. Sub-national governments that dealt with land policy had the option to exercise a mix of redistribution and acquisition based on historical factors, social demands and political convictions. This paper makes two related arguments by tracing the path of land reforms in the states of India. The first is that there are four types of property regimes that emerged out of India at the sub-national level.

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