The interface between environment and conflict has gained traction in policy and security circles in recent times. Growing scholarly interest on the linkage stems from increasing awareness on the role climate change plays in precipitating resource contestations and conflict over depleting natural resources, particularly in poor regions. Such impacts sometimes result from secondary consequences of environmental decline and resources scarcity which give rise to stiff competitions over access to available resources.
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Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksNovember, 2018South Africa, Nigeria
Library ResourceReports & ResearchOctober, 2016Burkina Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast
This chapter is a case study that tests hypotheses in order to determine if political factors can reduce violence in cases of climate-change-induced or -aggravated agro-pastoral conflicts over natural resources. Three West African countries were selected because of their common socio-economic and environmental characteristics and because they host comparable farmer–herder conflicts: Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. The level of farmer–herder conflicts is estimated to have risen between 1960 and 2000 in the three countries.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2018Vietnam
We estimate whether a land reform program led to higher incomes for ethnic minority households. In 2002, in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, Program 132 directed the transfer of farm land to ethnic minority households that had less than one hectare of land. Using the 2002 Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey as a baseline, in 2008 we resurveyed over one-thousand households to provide a retrospective evaluation of the impact of their participation in Program 132.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksApril, 2016Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Central Asia
Land degradation is a major challenge for agricultural and rural development
in Uzbekistan. Our research findings indicate that the costs of land
degradation in Uzbekistan are substantial; reaching about 0.85 billion USD annually
resulting from the loss of valuable land ecosystem services due to land use and
land cover changes alone between 2001 and 2009. On the other hand, economic
simulations also show that the returns from actions to address land degradation can
be four times higher their costs over a 30-year planning horizon, i.e. every dollar
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksApril, 2017China, Eastern Asia
Context: Recent conceptual developments in ecosystem services research have revealed the need to elucidate the complex and unintended relationships between humans and the environment if we are to better understand and manage ecosystem services in practice.
Objectives: This study aimed to develop a model that spatially represents a complex human–environment (H–E) system consisting of heterogeneous social–ecological components and feedback mechanisms at multiple scales, in order to assess multi-dimensional (spatial, temporal, and social) trade-offs in ecosystem services.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksAugust, 2016Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Central Asia
Land degradation affects negatively the livelihoods and food security of
global population. There have been recurring efforts by the international community
to identify the global extent and severity of land degradation. Using the long-term
trend of biomass productivity as a proxy of land degradation at global scale, we
identify the degradation hotspots in the world across major land cover types. We
correct factors confounding the relationship between the remotely sensed vegetation
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2016Global
The Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) initiative seeks to develop a
science basis for policy actions to address land degradation. The purpose of this
chapter is to provide with a conceptual framework and sound and feasible
methodological standards for ELD assessments at global and national levels. Only
if some basic standards are identified and adhered to, comparative assessments can
be conducted between countries and useful aggregation of findings, based on these
case studies, can be achieved. Therefore, using the Total Economic Value
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksOctober, 2015Global
The Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) initiative seeks to develop a science basis for policy actions to address land degradation. The purpose of this chapter is to provide with a conceptual framework and sound and feasible methodological standards for ELD assessments at global and national levels. Only if some basic standards are identified and adhered to, comparative assessments can be conducted between countries and useful aggregation of findings, based on these case studies, can be achieved.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksDecember, 2011Kenya
Kenya’s land surface is primarily arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) which account for 84% of the total land area. The Desert Margins Programme (DMP) in Kenya has made some contribution to understanding which technology options have potential in reducing land degradation in marginal areas and conserving biodiversity through demonstrations, testing of the most promising natural resource management options, developing sustainable alternative livelihoods and policy guidelines, and replicating successful models.
Library ResourceJournal Articles & BooksAugust, 2017Southern Asia, India
The stated objective of land policy in India has shifted from redistribution through land reform to ownership through land acquisition in the period between 1950 and 2014. Sub-national governments that dealt with land policy had the option to exercise a mix of redistribution and acquisition based on historical factors, social demands and political convictions. This paper makes two related arguments by tracing the path of land reforms in the states of India. The first is that there are four types of property regimes that emerged out of India at the sub-national level.
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